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Note 1  It has also been referred to in English as "biphonic singing", a 'Jew's" or "jaw's harp voice(Hamayon 1973), "split‑tone singing" and throat singing". French researchers have used terms such as "chant biphonique" (TrAn 1974) or "diphonique" (Uothaud 1989) or "chant diphonique solo" (Marcel‑Dubois 1979), "voix dedoublée" or "voix guimbarde" (HeIffer 1973, Hamayon 1973). The Xalxa Mongolian term xoomii means pharynx or throat and has been transliterated in different ways by different authors, for example chöömei (Aksenov 1964), khöömii  (Bosson 1964), hömi (Vargyas 1968), chöömij (Vietze 1969), xöömij (Hamayon 1973, TrAn 1978) and khöömei (Nixon 1989). In Mongolian scrip, it is written kögemei or kömei. 1 Transliterale it  as xöömii pronounce as if with an initial h.

 

Note 2 Recorded by John Levy and bequeathed to the Musee de homme.

 

Note 3 F refers to Filmography, OS to Other sources, D to Discography and IN to Interview, all of which may be found at the end of the paper.

 

Note 4 The Mongols translate this term as "nationality", a term which I find unsatisfactory because of its political implications. The term "tribe" is similarly problematic, since it has been used extensively to represent very different groupings, particularly in Africa, and the term "ethnic group" is also not quite right. I shall, therefore, use the Mongolian term.

 

Note 5  From 1925‑31 this aimag was called Chandman' Uulyn aimag (Jamiyan 2 IN) and included what is now called Xovd. Uys was formed in 1931.

 

Note 6 the term 'Tuvan is a Russian one. The local people along the border of Uvs aimag and Tuva referred to the people living there as Urianxai. These are not to be confused with the Uriarixai in eastern Inner Mongolia, who were ancestors of the present day Xarachin Mongols (Jagchid and Hlyer 1979:43 1), or the Urianxai of Xövgöl.

 

Note 7 Recordings of the now deceased Tscrennadmid, an Urianxai overtone singer who arrived and settled in Sagil  sum, may be heard in the Ulaangom Museum Sound Archive.

 

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Note 8 Chinese terms are transliterated according to the Pinyin system.

 

Note 9 XaIxa (Chandman', Darvi. Tsetseg, Buyant sum), Zaxchin  (Altai Most, Zercg, Manxan Uyench sum), Torguud (Bulgan sum), Urianxai (Monxairxan, sum), Oold (Xovd aimag centre and Erdeneburen sum) and Kazak (Xovd sum).

 

Note 10 I have previously encountered references to the performance of xöömii by the Oirad but never by the Xalxa. Although the Chandman' people are western XaIxa" (and as such have a very different performance styles from the central XaIxa people), they are not one of the Oirad yastan.

 

Note  11 Prior to the Revolution, Mongolia was divided into four aimag, Tsetsen Xan aimag, Tushiyetu Xan aimag, Sain Noyon Xan aimag, Jasaxtu Xan aimag) and seven xosliiiu. These xoshiiu were in the territory now called Bayan Olgii, and three of them were Tuvan, the other four Urianxai (Purev IN). Kazaks moved to this area after 1897, with a big influx in 1910. Prior to  that there had not been enough Kazaks to fill one sum. In 1979 the Tuvans constituted 0.3% of the Mongol population, but since then they have been counted as Urianxai (Sarndan  IN).

 

Note 12' The area was limited previously because territory was under the power of different princes and is now restricted by administrative divisions.

Note 13 Referred to locally as chatsargana, it is Hippophae rhamoides (Ulsyn..Medee, 1983).

 

Note 14 The translation of the first line of this couplet is unclear. Tsoloo (1988:835) gives TSAN as an Urianxai and Bayad term meaning Mong. xyaruu or frost. The word jürten (tei is a suffix meaning “with") does not appear in the Hangin, Tsoloo or Lessing dictionaries. Düüdei said that she herself did not understand the meaning of the first line. It possibly begins "Frost‑covered Altai ..." and continues "under the jurisdiction of the amban (the official who administered for the Manchu)", thus referring to the people of that place

.

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Note 15 The XaIxa refer to this form of dancing, which is performed with the top Half  of the body only, as biyelgee, whereas western yastan call it bii.

 

Note 16 Many western yastan, including the Dörvöd and the Bayad, use the term ixel for this instrumnent. The XaIxa term is xuur, which also has the wider meaning of chordophone. The suffix ‑ch denotes the performer of the instrument or song type; e.g. ixelch, xuurch, xöömiich

Note 17 Literally to cause milk to drink chigee, the West Mongolian equivalent of airag or fermented mare’s milk

 

Note 18 This is now an obsolete term, which used to refer to the noyon's adjutant or assistant (Hangin

1986..5).

 

Note 19 " U1syn …Medee, 19‑10.     

 

Note 20 The distance between two xot ail or encampments of family ger.

Note 21 The literal translation of this is "mouth in mountain". It refers to the space between‑two hills or mountains.

 

Note 22 Tseven a 40‑year‑old Dörvöd said that his people moved from the River Eev in the Jungar Estate, now Xinjiang (IN). An Urianxai, Samdan, agreed that it is now in Chinese territory but located in the Altai mountains (IN). Riimesamjid, 52‑year‑old eldest brother of Sarridan, added that the Urianxai had moved to Bayan Olgii from a place called Eev in about the 1750s, that Burxan Xaldun in modern Xentii aimag was the place from where the Urianxai originated, and that they went to China as soldiers in the Qing Dynasty and over a period of several centuries came back from Xinjiang past the River Eev to Bayan Olgii. However, the Bayad epic singer (tuulch) Getsel fought against the Kazaks in the 1930s when they attacked the Zaxchin in the Altai mountains near to the Uyench river, the locals had told him that the river was about 20 km southwest of there. And Chuluun, the man from whom the current revival of xöömii in Chandman' and consequently in Mongolia stems, stated that it is situated in Shar Toxoi, west Mongolia, where he had done his military service.

 

Note 23 The morin xuur is the XaIxa term used for a two‑stringed spike riddle which usually has the head of a horse carved on the end of the pegbox.

 

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Note 24 The same melody is played among other yastan on other instruments. For example, the 75‑yearold Bayad lady, Xorloo, played “The Flow of the River Eev” on the ixel (IN). and the Tuvans begin every nair with an urtyn duu /long song called "The River Eev". a song said to be near to the heart of all Tuvans (Torlaa IN).

 

Note 25 Urianxai Narantsogt, originally from Bayan Olgii  but now in Duut Sum Xovd aimag, plays '' The Flow of the River Eev" on the tsuur, a three‑holed vertical flute.

Note 26‑‑‑Teneur" refers to the bass line, since in early European polyphony it was the lowest voice which held from "tenir"the original plainchant melody (Costello, p.c.).

 

Note 27  A Russian term.

 

Note 28 According to David Hughes (pers. comm. 1992), when he heard Sundui perform in Japan in 1979, the half tones were achieved by shifting the drone pitch a half tone.

 

Note 29 The term egshig translates as musical musical sound or tone, melody, song; modulation of voice; pronunciation; vowel (Lessing 1982:299). However Tserenpils, a linguist at the Academy of Sciences, translated it in this context as "vowel". The exact significance of this "four‑vowel" claim remains to be clarified.

 

Note 30 Sundui held the wrestling title AimgUn Zaan, that is "Elephant of the Aimag", given to the winner of second place in the national wrestling championship.

Note 31 The term usnu xargia is used to refer to the sounds made by a river.

 

Note 32 Using Helmholtz Pitch notation, that is: c' = middle C'; c, C and CC represent successively lower octaves.

 

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Note 33 The group of xöömiiknown by various terms such as xargaraa, xarkiraa and kargyraa needs much more study. Hughes, (1989:10; n.d,) claims that the melody of Tuvan kargyraa, at least, arises from the first formant rather than second formant of the sung vowels, which requires the drone to be pitched much deeper.

 

Note 34 A cassette entitled Music and song of Mongolia was published as a result or this tour and is available from the author.

 

Note 35 Sundui (Zemp and TrAn 1991:29) and his pupil Ganbold (Zemp and TrAn 1989 F) did not, include labial and palatal xöömii in their classification of types.

 

Note 36 turleg = ‑verse of long song, chorus repeated by the audience" (Hangin 1986:525). The ending is a literary form of tei, "with".

 

Note 37 This is the western XaIxa version of the central XaIxa melody "Old Man and Bird" / ovgon, shuvuu

Note 38 1 have heard xarxiraa referred to by Mongols as meaning the sound made by a waterfall" but also "black crow". The XaIxa for "black crow" is xar xeree (Bawden 1991 OS). In western Mongolia, the Zaxchin, Torguud and Urianxai have a term XARKARAXXA which is the equivalent of the XaIxa xurxrex (Tsoloo 1988:407) meaning "to growl, grunt or to roar of a water fall" (Hangin 1986:705). Vietze translates xarxiraa (n) as Gm. katarakt, "waterfall" and xarxiraxi. as Gm. krachzcn, "croak, caw as of a crow" (1988:291).

 

Note 39 it remains to be investigated ,\,hcther there are characteristic pitch levels for various types of xöömii. The following fundamentals and overtones, shown here rounded to the  nearest Western  pitch, were used in single performances of several types (by Tserendavaa unless otherwise noted). labial and palatal xöömii: fundamental e (167‑8 Hz), range of melodic overtones b’’‑c#’’’’ nasal: f# (182‑3 Hz) and c#’’’‑c#’’’’: glottal: e (170 Hz) and b’’‑b’’’’; chest cavity: a (214‑5 Hz) and e"'e’’’’;  xöömii with long song: g (202‑3 Hz) and d"'‑d""; xarxiraa (Mongolian, performed by Margad (IN)): B , and b''‑g#''' ; xargaraa (Tuvan performed by Purev (IN)): AA with no melody but overtones on A and a (Carolann 1992 OS) Tserendavaa performed the same overtone melody in . labial and palatal xöömii, a second melody for nasal, chest cavity and glottal xöömii, and a third in the long song. Margad's rnelody in xarxiraa was different again.

 

Note 40 "Accompanies" is the word used by Masloy and Chemov's translator, although more likely xai is performed in altemation with the epic narrative.

 

Note 41 The filin was made at the Centre Medico‑chirurgical of the Porte de Choisy at the request of Prof. S. Borel‑Maisonny, speech therapist, and Prof. E. Lcipp, accoustician, with the assistance of TrAn Quang Hai.

 

Note 42 X‑ray film and videotape ‑ made in the Research Institute for Otorhinolaryngology and the Kirov Academy Of Military Medicine following a study of the physiological mechanism of a larynx in Tuvan singers by Maslov and Chernov in 1975.

 

Note 43 This folk belief is still adhered to. Horsemen may only whistle in summer when it is very hot, never when working and never inside the ger (Badraa IN).

 

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